学位论文撰写格式要求

 

Chongqing University MBA
Chongqing University MBA Dissertation Writing Format Standard
(Revised for 2011)
Chongqing University No. 468(2007)



1. Forward
1.1 The standard is set to standardize the format of MBA dissertation writing in this university, guarantee the quality of dissertations and facilitate collection, storage, processing, retrieval, utilization, exchanges and dissemination of the data system.
1.2 This standard applies to the format of dissertation writing by MBA degree applicants.
1.3 The standard is adopted with reference to Presentation of Scientific and Technical Reports, Dissertations and Scientific Papers (GB7713-87), Descriptive Rules for Bibliographic References (GB7714-87) and APA (American Physiological Association)
2. Dissertation
The dissertation is the academic paper submitted by the applicant for approval and thesis defense process when applying for the corresponding academic degree. It must be written independently by the applicant himself and should be systematic and complete.
The dissertation should provide the latest technological information; its content should include some new findings, inventions, innovations and progress instead of repeating or copying the predecessor’s work.
2.1 The dissertation should be capable of revealing the writer’s solid theoretical foundation, systematic professional knowledge in his field, new understandings in the area of his research and capacity in undertaking scientific research or independent special technological work. The dissertation writing for master’s degree should be no shorter than 1 academic year.
2.2 The dissertation should be written in most recently-released words and phrases, entered, compiled and typed through the computer by the writer. The body part of the master’s dissertation should be no less than 20,000 words. The content of the dissertation should be correct in statement, rigorous in inference, concise in expression, clear in division, incisive in argument and reliable in statistics.
2.3 The dissertation writer should read a large number of references before and after the topic selection. The references for master’s dissertation should be no less than 20 and at least one third of which should be foreign works. The literature review should analyze and summarize all the references. For a work from which the writer quoted in his dissertation, it should be listed in the reference and the quotation should be noted according to “Sequential Coding System” (see Appendix 1), “Author-publishing Year System” (Appendix 2) and APA Format (Appendix 3). If the “Sequential Coding System” is adopted, the references should be coded successively according to their appearance in the dissertation, and the sequence number should be placed in the square bracket. In “Author-publishing Year System” or APA format, the works cited using the same language as the dissertation should be cited before works in other languages(e.g. Chinese, English, Japanese, Russian, Spanish and others) ( works of the same language should be listed together; for works of the same language , the sequence should be followed according to the alphabetical order of the writer’s surname and the publishing year. The Chinese works should be sequenced according to the alphabetical order of the writer’s surname in Chinese Pinyin).
In one dissertation, the writer can only select one of the three aforementioned systems. The quotation format in the body should be in compliance with the format of the reference part behind. The format of the whole dissertation should be same.
3. Compilation Requirements
3.1 Page Requirements: The dissertation should be written on A4 (210×297mm) paper. If the total pages outnumber 60, the dissertation should be double-side-printed; if not, it should be printed on the single side. The copy size should be 207×291(the difference is within 1mm). The margin format of the dissertation should be as followed: margin-top: 30 mm, margin-bottom: 25mm, margin-left and Margin-right: 25mm, binding line: 10mm, page header: 16mm, page footer: 15mm.
3.2 Page Header: The format of page header should be set from the abstract to the last page of the dissertation. The content of the page header: for the double-side printed dissertation, the left aligned is “ Chongqing University MBA Dissertation” and the right aligned is the name of each chapter; for the double-side printed dissertation, the middle part on the left page is “ Chongqing University MBA Dissertation”, and the middle part on the right page is the name of each chapter. The dissertation is printed in Song typeface (10.5pts). There should be a line below the page footer.
3.3 Page Footer: From the body part (introduction), pages are sequenced in Arabic numerals which are marked in the middle of page footer for every page.
3.4 The previous pages can be numbered separately from the Chinese Title Page.
3.5 Font and spacing: Words in dissertation are in Song typeface (12pts). The word spacing is standard and the line space is in 20 pound fixed value.
4. Compilation Format
4.1 Numbering of dissertation chapters and sections; they should be numbered in Arabic numbers. (See 6.2.1)
4.2 The Constitution of Dissertation (in the sequence of appearance)
Prefixed Part: Cover (see 5.1)
English Title Page(see 5.2)
Chinese Title Page(see 5.2)
English Abstract Key Words( see 5.4, 5.5)
Chinese Abstract Key Words (See 5.4,5.5)
Content( see 5.6)
Illustrations and Appendix List ( see 5.7, if necessary)
Annotation List for Signals, Symbols, Abbreviations, Abbreviations, Measurement, Units, Terms and Nouns ( see 5.8 , if necessary)
Main Part: Introduction (see 6.3)
Body (see 6.4)
Conclusion (see 6.5)
Acknowledgements (see 6.6)
References (see 6.7)
Appendix (see 7, if necessary)
5. Prefixed Part
5.1 Cover:The format of cover should follow the Uniform Requirements on the MBA Dissertation Cover by Chongqing University. All the content listed on the cover should be completely filled. The classification code(according to the 4th edition of Chinese Library Classification), UDC code(Universal Decimal Classification Code) can be checked and downloaded from the website of the Academic Degree Office of Graduate School of Chongqing University (http://graduate.cqu.edu.cn/ Academic Degree Office). The confidentiality level is classified into public, internal, secret and top secret, and the confidentiality period should also be designated. According to the relevant regulations, those dissertations at internal, secret or top secret levels should be submitted and go through a series of procedures for approval.
5.2 English Title Page and Chinese Title Page: The English title page should be placed after the cover, followed by the Chinese Title Page. The following content should be listed bilingually.
Chongqing University MBA Dissertation (18pts, Black, Middle)
Dissertation Title ( 22 pts, Black, Middle)
Name of Postgraduate : ××××××××( 16pts,Black, Middle)
Instructor:(××××××××16pts,Black, Middle)
Discipline and Specialty: ××××××××( 16pts,Black, Middle)
College(Institute or Department) ( 16pts,Black, Middle)
Submitting(Completion) Date: ( 14pts,Black, Middle)
5.3 Title: The title is a logic group of most appropriate and concise words which can reflect the most important information of the dissertation. The selection of each word in the title should be helpful to key words identification, and can provide specific information for content compilation, second references retrieval. The title is generally less than 30 words, and avoids uncommon abbreviations, abbreviations, symbols, codes and equations. If the title fails to express the full meaning, sub-title can be used to make a supplementary explanation of the dissertation content. The title in a foreign language should consist of no more than 10 notional words.
5.4 Abstract: The abstract should be a brief statement of content and free from any annotations and comments. It should be written in the third person, independently and completely so that the reader can obtain necessary information without reading the whole dissertation. The content of the abstract should contain all the key information included in the dissertation. It that case, readers can decide whether they need to read the paper wholly or not, and it can also be adopted as the secondary reference citation.
The abstract mainly introduces the purpose, methodology, results and final conclusion of the research work, and is focused on the result and conclusion. In this part, diagrams, tables, chemical structures and computer programs are seldom included and neither should symbols and terms which are not universally known and illegitimate measurements be used.
The abstract page should be placed after the Chinese Title Page.
The abstract of the dissertation written in Chinese should include around 800 Chinese characters (for Master’s degree) (12 pts, Song Typeface). The abstract should include no more than 5 key words.
For the dissertation written in English, the Chinese abstract should include around 500 Chinese characters (for Master’s degree)( 12 pts, Song Typeface).The Chinese abstract should be placed before the English abstract. The abstract should include no more than 5 key words.
5.5 Key words: For reference citation and noting, key words are a group of words and terms selected from the dissertation to indicate the theme and content. Each dissertation should select 3-5 words as its key words. Those words are separated from another by coma, and the last word should not be followed by any punctuations. Key words should be placed below the abstract of the same language.
5.6 Content Page: A dissertation should have the content page which consists of sequence numbers, names and pages of chapters, sections, articles, appendix and bibliographical reference. The content should be placed on a new page after the abstract page, and the corresponding chapters, sections and segments should be marked like 1.1.1, 1.1.2 and so on.
5.7 Illustrations and List of Attached Diagrams: If a dissertation has many diagrams, it should list them out after table of contents. The diagram list should be numbered, carry titles and be paginated. The table list should be numbered, carry titles and be paginated.
5.8 The Annotation List for symbols, signs, abbreviations, abbreviations, measurements, nouns, terms. The annotations for symbols, signs, abbreviations, abbreviations, measurements, nouns, and terms should be collected in list and be placed after the table list page.
6. Main Part
6.1 Format: The compilation format should start from the introduction and end with the conclusion. The main part should start from a new page. Titles at the first level are separated by the page, while titles at the secondary level are separated by the space line.
6.2 Sequence Number
The sequence number of chapters should be numbered in Arabic numerals; Chinese sequence characters like “第一章(The First Chapter)”“一、(First)”are not allowed.
6.2.1 Each chapter of the dissertation should be numbered with the sequence numbers coded in Arabic numerals. The sequence levels are as followed:
1×××× ( 16pts,Black, Middle)
×××××××××××××××××××××× (12 pts, Song Typeface)
1.1×××× (15 pts, black, left)
××××××××××××××××××××× (for Content: 12 pts, Song Typeface)
1.1.1××××( 14 pts, black, left)
×××××××××××××××××××× (for Content :12pts, Song Typeface)
①×××× (Song Typeface, font in the same size as the content)
1) ×××× (Song Typeface, font in the same size as the content)
a. ×××× (Song Typeface, font in the same size as the content)
6.2.2 The diagrams, tables, equations and formulas in the dissertation should be numbered in sequence. The number should be marked in sequence and the marking should be easy to distinguish. For example: Illustration 2.1, Table 3.2 and Formula (3.5).
6.2.3 The dissertation should be numbered in Arabic numerals successively. The page number should start from the first page of the introduction part and starts from the right new page. The title page, abstract page and the table of contents should be placed separately on new page. The page number should be designated in the middle of the footer of each page. Blank pages should be avoided; otherwise, the right pages should be odd pages.
6.2.4 The appendix of the dissertation should follow the order of capitalized English letters, for example, appendix A.
The diagrams, tables, formulas and references in the appendix part should be numbered separately in Arabic numerals. Ahead of the number should be sequence number of the appendix, for example, A1; table B2; formula (B3); reference [A5].
6.3 Introduction: The introduction briefly introduces the purpose and the scope of the research, the previous achievements in the field, the knowledge blank, theoretical foundation, analysis, research plan, research methodology, experimental design, expected result and significance. This part should be concise, not identical to the abstract; nor should it be the annotation of the abstract. The introduction should not expound on the knowledge covered in common textbooks.
The dissertation should reflect the writer’s solid theoretical foundation, systematic professional knowledge, broad scientific vision and careful study on research program. Therefore, the historic view, overall statement of the previous achievements and theoretical analysis can be placed in separate chapters for sufficient elaboration.
6.4 Body: The body is the core of the dissertation, covering the major part of the dissertation. It includes investigation target, experimental and monitoring methods, instruments, materials, experimental and monitoring results, computing methods and programming principles, statistical data, processed diagrams, arguments formed and conclusions reached.
The dissertation should reflect the truth, objective, complete, reasonable in logic, defined in layers and plain for reading. As for others’ viewpoints, conclusions and statistics, the sources should be noted and listed in the reference part. The marking of the citation should be uniform in format and in line with the format of the reference.
6.4.1 Figures: Figures include curve graphs, construction plans, diagrams, illustrations, frame figures, flow charts, record drawings, layout plans, maps, photographs and plates.
Figures should be self-evident. Readers can understand the meaning by viewing figures, diagrams and illustrations without reading the body of the dissertation.
Figures should be numbered in sequence (see 6.2.2).
Each figure should carry a concise and exact name which should be placed with the number below the picture. The figure title should be bilingual (English words in Times New Roman, 10.5 pts; Chinese characters in Song typeface, 10.5 pts). If necessary, symbols, marks, codes and experimental conditions should also be designated in simplest words and placed horizontally below the figure title as the illustration for the figure (the illustration can be in Chinese only.)
The horizontal and vertical axes of curve graphs should be designated with quantities, specified symbols and units. If unnecessary, those can be omitted (e.g. Dimensionless). The symbols specifying quantity and the abbreviations should be in line with those used in the body of the dissertation.
The pictures should be clear in theme and the profile of the main part, and easy for plate-making. For example, the picture of replica zoomed in or out should be clear and appropriate in contrast. The picture should bear the scale of the object.
If the figures are from other cited works or documents, the source should be mentioned below the title of the picture or the illustration. (See 6.4.4) Picture 6.4.2. Only three-line tables are allowed. The arrangement of the tables is in horizontal way. Items and content are listed from left to right, and statistics are vertically arranged. The tables should be self-evident and marked with sequence numbers (see 6.2.2).
Under each table, there should be a concise and accurate title in both Chinese and English (English words in Times New Roman, 10.5 pts; Chinese characters in Song typeface, 10.5 pts). The table should be attached with the number. If necessary, the symbols, marks, codes and notes should be written in most concise words and placed below the table title as the annotation. The annotation should also be numbered (see 4.4) and matched with explanation below the table.
The columns in the table should be designated with “quantities or items tested, symbols specified and units”. They can only be omitted if unnecessary. The abbreviations and symbols should match those in the body part in format.
The numbers in the same column should aligned vertically, and in the table , expressions like “ ditto” and “ same as the left” are prohibited; numbers and words should be filled in instead. Blank means the item was not tested or did not exist. “……”means results unfound and “0” means the test result is zero. If charted into graphs, data do not need to be listed in a table.
6.4.3 Mathematics, Physics and Chemical formulas: equations, mathematics equations or formulas should be marked with sequence number on the right side (see6.2.2) (if they occupy more than one line, those numbers should be marked at the last line).
The Typesetting of Formulas: The sequence number of formulas should be marked on the right side of the line of the formula (if the formula cover more than one line, it should be marked on the last line), and the dotted line or the extension line are not allowed to use before the sequence number. For longer formulas, the rest part should be placed horizontally in the middle of the next lines. When it comes to the next line, the formula can only be separated at +,-,×,÷,< and > ; both sides of the equation should be aligned at “=”.
eg:1
st=aYt+(1-a)Yt-1+(1-a)2Yt-2
+…+(1-a)nYt-n+aYt+(1-a)
[Yt-1+(1-a)Yt-2+(1-a) 2Yt-3+…]
=aYt+(1-a)st-1(3.1)

eg:2
st=aYt+(1-a)Yt-1+(1-a)2Yt-2(5.2)
Decimal dot should be represented by “.”. Integers more than 999 and those decimal numbers over three digits should be separated by half Arabic number space not the kilobit mark, “,”. Decimal numbers should have “0” before the decimal point.
For example, it should be 94 652.023 675;0.314325
Instead of 94,652。023 675;0.314325
6.4.4 Annotation: If the simple explanation, illustration, comment and note for a certain question, notion or view are improper to be placed in the body, they can be made as foot-note. The annotation for the certain content can also be inserted into the body(placed in the round bracket; Chinese characters in Song Typeface, 10.5 pts; English words in Times New Roman, 10.5 pts) or placed in the page footer area. The annotations should be marked with numbers in circle.
Annotations should be numbered, and sequence numbers should be in the order of appearance of the annotations. Numbers in circle like ①、②、③……should be marked where annotations are made, and the font of the annotations is the same as that of the body( Chinese in Song typeface,12pts; English in Times New Roman, 12pts). The sequence numbers should be marked at the upper right corner.
The explanation for annotations should start with the sequence mark. The detailed explanation should be placed at the bottom of the same page and separated from the body with a horizontal line which is aligned with the body and extends 1/4 of the page width. The Chinese characters in the annotation part are in Song typeface, 10.5pts; English words in Times New Roman, 10.5pts.
Any forms of citation in the dissertation should be marked, and the annotation format should be the same as the reference part. (See 6.7 References)
6.4.5 Measurement Units: Measurement units should adopt PRC Regulations on Legitimate Measurement Units and comply with Regulations on Use of Legitimate Measurement Units. The unit names and symbol writing should adopt the international universal standard.
6.4.6 Symbols and abbreviations: symbols and abbreviations should follow the relevant regulations of the national standard; if there is no related regulation, the regulations promulgated by the authoritative institutions or the academic organizations of the discipline or the specialty should be adopted; or terminologies compiled by China National Committee for Terms in Sciences and Technologies can be used.
6.5 Conclusion: The conclusion of the dissertation should be final and general one, instead of the simple repetition of the summery of each part. The conclusion should be accurate, complete, definite, and concise.
6.6 Acknowledgements: In this part, gratitude should be extended to the supervisor, and other individuals and organizations that have made direct contributions to the completion of your dissertation. The writer should also express his thanks to individuals, foundations, enterprises and other units for their assistance, conditions and materials provided for the research.
6.7 References: The references should be a collection of useful documents that the writer has read himself. It should be authoritative and should cite the latest works.
The order of listed references should follow “Sequential Coding System” to number the references according to their appearance. Whether in “Author- Publishing Year System” or “APA System”, the references using the same language of the dissertation should be listed before references in foreign languages. The order of the references should be decided by their writers’ Chinese surname in Chinese Pinyin system. A dissertation can only select one sequence system and the citation format should be in line with the format of the references to avoid any confusion in format. All the references should be listed at the end of the dissertation (Chinese Characters in Song typeface, 10.5 pts; English words in Times New Roman, 10.5 pts). References、 should not be listed at the end of each chapter.
 

Appendix 1
“Sequential Coding System”

The quotation in a paper is marked with right superscript (12 pts and Song typeface); and it must not be marked at various levels of titles. References is listed according to their order of appearance in the paper with [1], [2], [3]….
e.g. …H. Croce, a scholar from west Germany studied the control of…[235]; then, he described…and proposed the thought that…[236].
……
When quoting multiple literatures at the same time, the sequential numbers of quoted literatures, which are separated with “,”, need only to be listed in square brackets; when the numbers form a sequence, only the starting and the ending numbers are needed.
e.g. Pei Wei[570,583] proposed that…
Morad’s study of…[255~256].
The representing format of references is: all [] should be in half angle, other symbols are in full width.
A Monograph, collection of papers, dissertation, research report— [sequence number] chief contributor. Title of literature [literature type marker]. Publishing location: publisher, publishing year. Starting and ending page.
e.g.
[1] Zhou Zhengfu. Zhouyi Translated and Annotated [M]. Beijing: China Book Bureau, 1991.
B Journal essays—[sequence number] chief contributor. Title [J]. Name of the journal, year, volume (issue): starting and finishing page.
e.g.
[2] He Lingxiu. Nanming History Interpreted [J]. Study of Chinese History, 1998, (3): 167-173.
C Newspaper articles—[sequence number] chief contributor. Title [N]. name of newspaper, publishing date (edition).
e.g. [3] Xie Xide. New Ways of Creative Learning [N]. People’s Daily, 1998-12-23 (10).
D Electronic literature—[sequence number] chief contributor. Title.[electronic literature and type of carrier], publishing or available address of the electronic literature, date of issuing or updating/date of quotation (for choice).
e.g.
[4] Wang Mingliang. On the Development of the Database System Project for the Standardization of Chinese Academic Journals [EB/01]. http://www.cajcd.cn/pub/wml.txt/980810-2.html, 1998-08-16/1998-10-04.
E Various undefined literature—[sequence number] chief contributor. Title [Z]. publishing location: publisher, publishing year.
e.g.
[5] Zhang Yonglu. Dictionary of Changan in Tang Dynasty [Z]. Xian: Shanxi People’s Press.
F Patent—[sequence number] patent applicant, title of patent. Nationality of patent, type of patent literature, number of patent, issuing date: starting and finishing page of the quoted part.
e.g. [7] Wang Lan. Design of Automobile Outlook [p]. China, ZL….., 1998.8.25:1.
G Technical Standards: [sequence number] draft contributor. Standard code. Standard sequential number—publishing year. Standard name. publishing location: publisher, publishing year, starting and ending page of quoted part.
H Literature type marker. According to GB3469 – 83 Literature Type and Literature Carrier Code, single letters are used as markers: M—monograph (including compilation and translation), C—collection of papers (including collection of papers translated), N—newspaper articles, J—journal entries, D—dissertations, R—research report, S—standard, P—patent; for literature separated from monograph or collected papers, letter “A” is used as marker; other unidentified type of literature is marked with letter “Z” (including literary works, dictionaries, Ci Hai, etc.).
e.g.
[1] Zhou Zhengfu. Zhouyi Translated and Annotated [M]. Beijing: China Book Bureau, 1991.
[2] He Lingxiu. Nanming History Interpreted [J], Study of Chinese History, 1998, (3): 167-173.
[3] Xie Xide. New Ways of Creative Learning [N]. People’s Daily, 1998-12-23 (10).
[4] Wang Mingliang. On the Development of the Database System Project for the Standardization of Chinese Academic Journals [EB/01]. http://www.cajcd.cn/pub/wml.txt/980810-2.html, 1998-08-16/1998-10-04.
[5] Zhang Yonglu. Dictionary of Changan in Tang Dynasty [Z]. Xian: Shanxi People’s Press.

 

 

Appendix: 2
“Author – Publishing Year System”

According to national standard GB 7714 – 87 Rules for the Documentation of References after the Text, quotations in a paper are marked with the name of the author and year (author, year, same font and size of the text), placed in round brackets; literature from collective authorship can be marked with the names of institutions or organizations. According to international conventions, English literature is marked with the surname of the author and the publishing year, also placed in round brackets. Like (Farrell, 1997); Chinese literature is marked with name of the author and the publishing year in round brackets, like (张华,2000). When there are two authors to one literature, the way of marking becomes (Sommerset and Lovekin,2000) or (张华,李平,2000). When there are more than two authors, the marking method becomes (Sommerset et al,2000)或(李平等,2000). If the author has more than one literature published in the same year quoted, then an identification sign is needed in literature marking and the references, like (1985a), (1985b). If the paper has already mentioned the name of the author, then only the publishing year in round brackets following the name of the author is needed, like “F.Modigliani (1960) pointed out that ……”
As far as the order of literature listing is concerned, literature that uses the same language as the text should precede other languages (literature within the references is first gathered according to languages, like Chinese, English, Japanese, Spanish, Russian, other languages, before they are ordered according the to alphabetical order of the authors’ names and the publishing years; Chinese authors are arranged according to the pinyin alphabet of their surnames, English authors are ordered according to their alphabetic orders). References is not numbered.
The representing format of references is: all [] should be in half angle, other symbols are in full width.
A Monograph, collected papers, dissertation, research report—chief contributor. Title of literature [literature type marker]. Publishing location: publisher, publishing year. Starting and ending page.
e.g.
Zhou Zhengfu. Zhouyi Translated and Annotated [M]. Beijing: China Book Bureau, 1991.
B Journal essays—chief contributor. Title [J]. name of the journal, year, volume (issue): starting and finishing page.
e.g.
He Lingxiu. Nanming History Interpreted [J]. Study of Chinese History, 1998, (3): 167-173.
C Newspaper articles—chief contributor. Title [N]. name of newspaper, publishing date (edition).
e.g. Xie Xide. New Ways of Creative Learning [N]. People’s Daily, 1998-12-23 (10).
D Electronic literature—chief contributor. Title.[electronic literature and type of carrier], publishing or available address of the electronic literature, date of issuing or updating/date of quotation (for chioice).
e.g.
Wang Mingliang. On the Development of the Database System Project for the Standardization of Chinese Academic Journals [EB/01]. http://www.cajcd.cn/pub/wml.txt/980810-2.html, 1998-08-16/1998-10-04.
E Various undefined literature—chief contributor. Title [Z]. publishing location: publisher, publishing year.
e.g.
Zhang Yonglu. Dictionary of Changan in Tang Dynasty [Z]. Xian: Shanxi People’s Press.
F Patent—patent applicant, title of patent. Nationality of patent, type of patent literature, number of patent, issuing date: starting and finishing page of the quoted part.
e.g. Wang Lan. Design of Automobile Outlook [p]. China, ZL….., 1998.8.25:1.
G Technical Standards: [sequence number] draft contributor. Standard code. Standard sequential number—publishing year. Standard name. publishing location: publisher, publishing year, starting and ending page of quoted part.
H Literature type marker. According to GB3469 – 83 Literature Type and Literature Carrier Code, single letters are used as markers: M—monograph (including compilation and translation), C—collection of papers (including collection of papers translated), N—newspaper articles, J—journal entries, D—dissertations, R—research report, S—standard, P—patent; for literature separated from monograph or collected papers, letter “A” is used as marker; other unidentified type of literature is marked with letter “Z” (including literary works, dictionaries, Ci Hai, etc.).
e.g.
He Lingxiu. Nanming History Interpreted [J], Study of Chinese History, 1998, (3): 167-173.
Wang Lan. Design of Automobile Outlook [p]. China, ZL….., 1998.8.25:1.
Wang Mingliang. On the Development of the Database System Project for the Standardization of Chinese Academic Journals [EB/01]. http://www.cajcd.cn/pub/wml.txt/980810-2.html, 1998-08-16/1998-10-04.
Xie Xide. New Ways of Creative Learning [N]. People’s Daily, 1998-12-23 (10).
Zhang Yonglu. Dictionary of Changan in Tang Dynasty [Z]. Xian: Shanxi People’s Press.
Zhou Zhengfu. Zhouyi Translated and Annotated [M]. Beijing: China Book Bureau, 1991.

Appendix: 3
“APA Format”

The requirement of this format is based mostly on APA format (American Physiological Association), with reference to the norms of bibliographies in papers published in core journals of international and domestic applied linguistics and language teaching (like TESOL, Studies of Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, which are international, and domestic Study and Teaching of Foreign Languages). Anywhere clarity is needed, please log on to http://owl.English.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01 for reference. Specific requirements are as follows:
1. Quotation format in a paper (APA quotation universally uses the format of “interlinear notes”
1.1 Citations
A. If citation involves only some essay or monograph of one author, and the name of the author does not show in the text, the surname of publishing time of the author should be placed in round brackets at the end of the line, with the same font and size as the text. Attention: the brackets make a part of the sentence, and punctuations marks should be placed after the brackets.
eg: It has been argued that teachers’ role is to provide the students with optimal conditions which can facilitate learning so that students can achieve similar conditions results (Bloom, 1976).
B. If the name of the author cited already appeared in the text, only publishing time bracketed and placed after the name is necessary.
eg: Gould (1988) attributes Darwin’s success to his gift for making the appropriate metaphor.
C. If the name of the author and the publishing time citied are already in the text, interlinear notes won’t be necessary.
eg:In a 1988 article, Gould explores some of Darwin’s most effective metaphors.
D. If the citation involves a work by two authors, each citation must be marked with both authors’ names, using “&” in interlinear notes and “and” in the text to join the two authors.
eg:The disadvantages of the multiple regression analysis is that it cannot show the complex interrelations between independent variable (Bryman & Cramer, 1990). Bryman and Cramer also pointed out that…
E. If the number of authors involved is greater than two and less than six, the first interlinear note needs to have all of their names; citations of their works elsewhere require only the surname of the first author plus “et al”.
eg:Scientists have isolated a gene connected to circadian rhythms in plants (Millar, Straum, Chory, Chua, & Kay, 1995, p. 1163) . . . . They identified the mutations that activated light-dependent pathways (Millar, et al, 1995, p. 1165)
F. If the citation involves more than six joint authors, the note needs to have but the surname of the first author, plus “et al”.
eg:Naiman et al. (1978)found a similar relationship, although I this case effort’ on the part of the learners was also associated with instrumental motivation (subsequent citations) (Ellis, 1954: 512).
G. If different works of the same author are involved, they should be separated according to publishing time in brackets; if different works of the same author in the same year are involved, lowercase English letters are placed behind the publishing times for the purpose of distinction.
e.g. (Halliday, 1978, 1992);(Halliday, 1967a, 1967b)
1.2 Quotations
A. If the surname of the author of the original work is not mentioned in your text, and then you need to bracket the surname of the author, the publishing time and the pagination of the quotation, then place it behind the quoted content, in the same font and size as the text. The quoted part should use double quotation marks. If the original text has double quotation marks, then the original double quotation mark should be changed into single quotation marks.
eg:Conceptually, motivation is seen as“the combination of effort plus desire to achieve the goal of learning the language plus favorable attitude toward learning language” (Gardner, 1985, p.10).
Based on different findings, it is proposed that“the type of motivation and its strength are likely to be determined less by some generalized principle and more by‘who learns what in what milieu’”. (Laser-Freeman & Long, 1993, p. 174)
B. If your text has already mentioned the surname of the original author, you need but to bracket the pagination of your quotation.
eg:Gardner (1985) sees motivation as“the combination of effort plus desire to achieve the goal of learning the language plus favorable attitude toward learning language” (p. 10).
C. If quotation involves multiple authors, except for compliance with A and B above, other rules are the same of the rules of citations.
D. If the word count of your quotation is less than 40 English words, the quotation merges with your paragraphs. If it exceeds 49 English words, it should form an independent paragraph, which is arranged in the “block format”; the entire paragraph indents five spaces (if the quotation has a second paragraph, the entire paragraph needs to indent five more spaces); and the quoted part does not need quotation marks. If there are already quotation marks, they should be kept.
eg:Raymond William explains that the word career has all but lost its original meaning.
Career is now so regularly used to describe a person’s progress in life, or, by derivation from this, his pofession or vocation that it is difficult to remember, in the same context, its original meaning of a recourse and a gallop—though in some contexts, as in the phrase“Careering about,” these survive.
Career appeared in English . . .
E. When quoting poetry for less than two lines, they should merge with your text, with the two lines separated with a slash. The capitalized first letter should be kept, and quoted part should use double quotation marks; if more than two lines are quoted, refer to rule D.
eg:In his“Hymn to Intellectual Beauty,” Shelly personifies the immaterial, spiritual world: “The awful shadow of some unseen Power / Floats though unseen among us.”
In“Song of Myself,” Walt Whitman uses the dictation and rhythm of natural speech.
A child said What is the grass? fetching it to me with
full hands;
How could I answer the child? I do not know what it
is any more than he.
I guess it must be the flag of my disposition,
out hopeful green stuff woven.
F. Quoting novel
If the paper is about criticism of a novel, repetitious quotation from the novel is unavoidable. For the sake of convenience, the first quotation is marked with pagination in round brackets, plus an end note in superscript, and in the same font and size of the text. The format of end note is illustrated in the following example. Then every quotation henceforward needs not end notes, but pagination.
eg:In six months’ time, he was tramped into marriage with her, though“he had no respect for her.” (p. 40)1
Foemat of endnotes:
1. All the quotations from the novel are taken from: Thomas Hardy. Jude the Obscure. Oxford: OUP. 1991
G. If part of the quotation is to be omitted, and the omitted part is in the middle of the quotation, English ellipsis dots should be used; if omitting takes place after a complete sentence, ellipsis dots are not necessary unless there is quotation behind; the second example in the following demonstrates this:
eg: original text: In the western farm states the Granger movement, organized in 1869 as The Patron of Husbandry, was able to force regulatory legislation through some state legislatures.
Citation after the omit : According to Margaret G. Meyers, “the Granger movement . . . was able to force regulatory legislation through some states legislatures.”
original text: A foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds, adored by little statesmen, philosophers and divine.
Citation after the omit: Emerson advocated the courage to change one’s mind when he said that“a little foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds.”
H. To be grammatical, capitalization or lowercase at the beginning of a quoted sentence can be changed, though change is not necessary.
e.g. Kitto asserts, “the Greek instinct was the opposite, to take the widest view.” (the capitalized “T” in the first article of the quotation was changed into a lowercase)
I. In addition to rule G, if you think change of the quotation is necessary, you also have to explain in square brackets. Usually there are several situations as follows:
a. If the quotation itself contains errors, the correction in square brackets could be placed behind the error, or “sic” in square brackets could be placed at the end of the quotation. (“sic” in Latin means “the original text is like this”)
eg:Doe added, “the affects [effects] of radiation exceeded our estimates.”
John Doe explained, “The results of the 1988 experiment were quite amassing [sic].”(time of the original text is erroneous, and the correct time is 1986)
b. Explanation in square brackets indicates that the italics of the text is original, or you made it italic stress on it;
eg:Rubin (1987) more explicitly states the importance of studying students’ beliefs in her review of the research on learner strategy:
. . . to better understand how learner strategies come to be used, it is essential that we account for a Lerner’s knowledge about language and his/her beliefs about the learning process because his knowledge can form the basis for selecting and activating one strategy over another [italics added] (p. 19).
c. If you are worried about the reader being confused by pronouns in the quotation, explanation in square brackets can be used to explain:
eg:In the preface, the author claims“This [“The Three Languages”] is the story of an adolescent whose needs are not understood by his father.”
1.3 changed quotation (the quotation from a source other than the original)
If your quotation is not from the original work, but from some second-hand material, you need to identify the source after the quotation in round brackets, and put “qtd in” in front of your source. In the references, you need just to present its actual source.
eg:Gothe wrote that“it takes more culture to perceive the virtues of The Magic Flute than to point out its defects” (qtd in Newman, 1958, p. 104).
(references: Newman, E.. 1958. Great operas: The definitive treatment of their history, stories, and music. Vol.2. New York: Vintage.
2. Editing format for references after the dissertation
The order of references arrangement as required by APA is: literature that uses the same language as the text should precede other languages (literature within the references is first gathered according to languages, like Chinese, English, Japanese, Spanish, Russian, other languages, before they are ordered according the to alphabetical order of the authors’ names and the publishing years; Chinese authors are arranged according to the pinyin alphabet of their surnames, English authors are ordered according to their alphabetic orders). References is not numbered.
APA referencing examples
Example An example of an in-text reference The entry in the reference list
Book with one author Freire (1972) argues that… Freire,P. (1972).Cultural action for freedom. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin.
Book with two to six authors According to West, Hore, Eaton and Kermond (1986)… West, L., Hore, T., Eaton, E., & Kermond, B. (1986). The impact of higher education on mature age students. Canberra: Commonwealth Tertiary Education Commission.
Book with more than six authors As suggested by Avery et al (1995), “………” (pp.28-29) Avery, H., Strath, L., Taylor, K., James-Caven, K., Taylor, C., Tromly, A., et al (1995). Thinking it through: A practical guide to academic essay writing (rev. 2nd ed.) Peterborough, Canada: TrentUniversity.
Book with no author As shown in Networking essentials plus (2000)… Networking essentials plus. (2000). Redmond, Washington: Microsoft Press.
Book with no date Pye (n.d.) maintains that… Pye, E. (n.d.). First infant reader. Melbourne: Robertson & Mullens.
Chapter or article in an edited book In conclusion, Dart (1997) emphasizes… Dart, B. (1997). Adult learners’ metacognitive behavior in higher education. In P. Sutherland (Ed.), Adult learning: A reader (pp. 33-43). London: Kogan Page.

Chapter or article in an encyclopedia Hore (1992) has argued… Hore, T. (1992). Non-traditional students: Third age and part-time. In B. Clark & G. Neave (Eds.), The encyclopedia of higher education: Analytical perspectives (Vol. 3, pp. 1666-1674). Oxford, England: Pergamon.
Journal article Bessant (1996) acknowledges… Bessant, B. (1996). Higher education in Australia: The unified national system. Education Research and Perspectives, 23(1), 110-123.
Conference paper It has been shown (Powell, 1978) that… (1) Published
Powell, J. (1978). Higher education in a steady state: Proceedings of the third annual conference of HERDSA. Sydney: HERDSA
(2) Unpublished
Clarke, T. (2000). Access to academia: An accredited course for mature age students. Paper presented at the Language and Academic Skills Conference-La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC.
Abstract from an Electronic Database Fournier, de Ridder and Bensing (1999) link this concept with… Fournier, M., de Ridder, D., & Bensing, J. (1999). Optimism and adaptation to multiple sclerosis: What does optimism mean. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 22, 303-326. Abstract retrieved October 23, 2000, from PsycINFO database.
Electronic Journal article Peter (2000) clarifies the process… Peters, M. (2000). Does constructivist epistemology have a place in nurse education? Journal of Nursing Education, 39(4), 166-170. Retrieved May 10, 2001, from CINAHL database.

Electronic report The Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs (2000) considered that… Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs. (2000). Higher education report for the 2000 to 2002 triennium. Retrieved October 20, 2000, from DETYA Web site: www.detya.gov.au/highered/he_report/2000_2002/ html1_1.htm.

Newspaper article Murray (2001) suggests that…. Murray, J. (2001, September 22-23). Faith built on solid pillars. The Weekend Australia, p.24.
Hu Jueming (2004). Reasoning of Intentions in Listening Comprehension. Foreign Languages and Foreign Language Teaching. 4th issue: 22-23, 31.
Hu Zhuanglin, Zhu Yongsheng, Zhang Delv (1989). Introduction of Systematic Functional Grammar. Changsha: Hunan Education Press.
Le Daiyun, et al (1998). New Collection of the Principles of Comparative Literature. Beijing: Beijing University Press.
Li Dalun (1998). The Importance of Economic Globalization. Guangming Daily. 1998-12-27(3).
Science and Technology Committee of PRC (1991). Managerial Method for Science and Technology Periodicals. 1991-06-05.
7. Appendix
7.1 The following content should be included in the appendix.
a. Extremely lengthy derivation of equation and process of proof can be offered in appendix;
b. Closely related to this paper yet not analysis, evidence or tables as tools originated by the author of this paper;
c. Experimental data and program that cannot be listed in the text;
d. Abbreviations used in the paper and program descriptions, etc.;
e. works published by, results of scientific and technological researches (patents, awards, evaluations, etc.) achieved by, and social comment of the realization of the engineering and related data (offered in the form of a list, whose format should refer to 6.7 of references format) provided by the applicant of academic degree.
7.2 Appendix should be paginated together with the text
8. Others
This standard of dissertation format is effective from the day it is issued, and School of Economics and Management in Chongqing University reserves all rights to explain, and the academic degree office will be responsible.
Appendix: 1. State Standard Editing Format for Scientific/Technical Report, Academic Degree Paper and Academic Paper of PRC, GB7713 - 87
2. State Standards for the Documentation of References in PRC.
Chongqing University
6th, November, 2007
Appendix 1
National Criteria of P.R.C
UDC 001.81
Format for the Presentation of Scientific/Technical Report, Dissertation, and Academic Paper GB7713-87

1 Forword
1.1 The purpose of making this criterion is to synchronize the composing and editing format of scientific/technical report, dissertation and academic paper (report and paper for short hereinafter) for the sake of convenience in the collection, storage, management, processing, searching, utilization, communication and distribution of information.
1.2 This criterion applies to the writing format of report and paper, including the structure, references and book record as well as their writing, editing, printing and publishing, etc.
Report and paper as referred to in this criterion can be manuscripts, including handwritten copy, type writing and its duplicate; press copy, including paper and its pre-print, sample print and variant copy published in journals or conference minutes; work as a part of a book or an independent book; microcopy and other forms.
1.3 This criterion applies to, in full or in partial, other scientific/technical documents, e.g., annual report, note, memorandum, etc, as well as to technical profiles.
2 Definition
2.1 Scientific/Technical Report (STR hereinafter)
Scientific/technical report describes the result or progress of a STR; or the result of experiment and evaluation of a technical research; or a document that narrates the current status and development of certain ST issues.
STR is to be submitted to the supervising institution of ST work, or to science foundations, or people who are in charge of the research. STR, generally speaking, should supply adequate information in a systematic or progressive manner. Both positive and negative results and experiences could be included for the judgment and evaluation of relevant persons; also revising advice regarding the conclusion and suggestion in the report could be offered.
2.2 Dissertation
Dissertation is an academic paper that presents creative results or original understandings of the research, on the basis of which a corresponding degree is applied for.
A bachelor’s dissertation should be able to indicate that the author has already commanded the fundamental theories, special knowledge and basic skills of his chosen subject and is already equipped with elementary ability in conducting ST research work or assume specific technical work.
A master’s dissertation should be able to indicate that the author has already had a solid theoretical foundation and systematic professional knowledge, is able to offer fresh perspectives into his chosen subject and is equipped with the ability to conduct ST research or to work independently with special skills.
A doctor’s dissertation should be able to indicate that the author has already had a solid and broad command of basic theories as well as systematic professional knowledge, is able to conduct STR independently and made creative contributions in science or his chosen field.
2.3 Academic Paper
Academic paper is a scientific record of original scientific research results, or novel perspective and knowledge in terms of experiment, theory or observation; or a scientific summary of new developments yielded by known principles applied to new objects for the reading, communication or discussion in an academic conference; or published in an academic journal; or written documents for other purposes.
Academic paper should supply new ST information, and its content should be a discovery, an invention, a creation, and a progress, rather than a repetition, imitation or a theft of previous works by others.
3. Requirements for Compilation
Chinese version of report or paper must be written or printed on white sheets of paper; versions in foreign languages must be printed. Colorfast copy is acceptable.
Report/paper should use A4 (210mm×297 mm) white paper for the convenience of reading, copying and micro-reproduction. When writing, scanning or printing a report/paper, sufficient blank margins must be reserved for the sake of binding, copying or annotating. The upside (top margin) and the left side (binding edge) should be wider than 25mm; the bottom (bottom edge) and the right side (cutting edge) should be above 20mm.
4 Format of Compilation
4.1 The number of chapters and entries in report/paper should abide by relevant stipulations in the 8th chapter, “Numbering of Standard Entries”, of GB1.1 Basic Stipulations regarding Standardized Guiding Principles for the Compilation of Standards, and use arabic numerals to number different classifications.
4.2 Components of Report/Paper (neglected)
5 Pre-posed Part
5.1 Cover
5.1.1 Cover is the surface of report/paper, and it provides relevant information and protects the content.
A cover is not indispensable. Academic paper, if used as a part of a journal, a book or other publications, does need a cover; as a pre-print, sample print or a book, however, a cover is acceptable.
5.1.2 A cover could include the following information:
a. Classification code: classification code at upper left corner facilitates information exchange and management. Generally speaking, classification code from China Classification Method of Books and other Materials should be used; in the meantime, Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) code should also be identified.
b. Number of the author’s unit is usually placed at upper right corner. No need for academic paper, though.
c. Level of confidentiality depends on the content of report/paper; according to state confidentiality regulations, level of confidentiality should be marked at up right corner. If the report/paper is to be published, the mark is unnecessary.
d. Title and sub-title or the title of its fascicule should be placed in conspicuous positions with large font.
e. If the name and number of volume, fascicule, cantos are in one book, this won’t be necessary.
f. Version, like draft, first draft, revised edition…etc. If they are published for the first time, this won’t be necessary.
g. Names of the responsible. The responsible includes the author of report/paper, the supervisor and evaluator of academic paper, the chairman of the paper defense committee, and the unit that grants degrees, etc. The post, title, degree, unit name and unit address of the responsible could be identified if necessary; if the responsible is a unit, a team or a group, the full name and address should be clearly identified.
Names on the cover, the name page or before the text of an academic paper should include only those who decided on the choice of the subject, made the research plan, directly participated in all of, or part of, the research work, made major contributions, participated in the writing and are capable of being responsible for the content of the paper; and the names should also be ranked in accordance with the contributions they make. As for cooperators who participated in a part of the work, or workers who are in charge of a specific part of the work, the doer of a specific test, and assisting persons entrusted to conduct analysis, experiments or observations, etc. should not be listed. They can be, however, acknowledged as contributors, or listed in footnotes.
If it is necessary to add the pinyin of the contributor’s names, according to state stipulations, the surname should precede the name, and if the name has more than one Chinese characters, the pinyin should be put together without a hypen; no initials, either.
h. Academic degrees applied for should be marked correspondingly according to Temporary Executive Method of Academic Degree Awarding of the People’s Republic of China.
i. Name of major refers to the major of the author who is applying for an academic degree in the major.
j. Finishing date includes the date of report/paper submittal, the date of paper defense, the date of degree awarding, and the date the publisher received of the paper (when necessary).
k. Publishing items include publishing address and publisher’s name, and the date, month and year of publication (when necessary).
5.1.3 Format of cover for report/paper is laid out in Appendix A
5.2 Inside front cover
The inside front cover may mark the way of sending, including free gift or purchase price, the sending unit and individual, copyright stipulations; and other matters that should be notified.
5.3 Name page
The name page is a proof to the authorship of report/paper.
Academic paper does not need a name page.
Name page is placed behind the front inside cover and the flyleaf, to form the shiye of lingye.
If report/paper has more than one volume, each volume should have a name page, in which the name and number of the volume should be marked.
The name page should include, in addition to the content as stipulated in 5.1, the following items:
Unit name, address, the responsibles’ post, title, academic degree, unit name and address, names of cooperators who are not listed on the front cover.
5.4 Variant edition
In order fulfill certain needs, report/paper would offer certain variant editions in addition to the formal full text. For example: excerpt, abridgment, summary for the purpose of submitting to evaluation, re-writing for the extraction of contents needed, etc.
The cover of variant edition must mark words like “excerpt, abridgment, or re-writing”, the rest items that need to be identified should follow the stipulations in 5.1.
5.5 Title
5.5.1 Title is a logic combination of words that represent the most important content of report/paper in the most appropriate and concise diction. The choice of every word for the title must take into consideration the presentation of specific and practical information like being helpful for the choice of keywords, the making of index, the convenience of citation, etc. for the search of others.
A title should avoid using abbreviations, initials, characters, codes or equations, etc.
A title should be shorter than 20 words.
Foreign (mostly English) titles should be used for report/paper for the purpose of international communication. And the foreign title should not be longer than ten notional words.
5.5.2 Sub-title is allowed in the following circumstances:
The title does not fully state the idea, so a sub-title is used to complement the idea of report/paper.
Report/paper is published in volumes, or a series of work reported in consecutive parts, or research results in different phases, should use different sub-titles to distinguish their respective content.
Other cases that require a sub-title to expound or to illustrate.
5.5.3 If the title appears in different places of the entire report/paper, it should be the same, though the overline could be left out.
5.6 Foreword or preface
A preface is not indispensable. The preface of report/paper is usually an introduction to the characteristics of the report/paper by the author or others, like why the research, how is it done, what principles were followed, what was the purpose, what is the point, what category does it belong to, who sponsored, supported or helped the writing of report/paper, etc; also relevant issues could be commented or explicated. These contents could also be explained in the introduction to the text.
5.7 Abstract
5.7.1 Abstract is a brief statement of the content of report/paper without annotations or comments.
5.7.2 It is customary of report/paper to have an abstract; for the sake of international communication, there also should be abstract in foreign languages (English).
5.7.3 Abstract should be independent and autonomous, viz. one does not have finish the entire report/paper to get necessary information. Abstract has data and conclusion, and is a short report/paper that could be used independently, be quoted from, and be used for the promotion of technical arts. The content of an abstract should be as informative as report/paper so that the reader does not have finish the reading of the entire report/paper and so that it can be used as secondary literature. Abstract, generally speaking, should describe the purpose, method, result and conclusion of the research, stressing on results and conclusion.
5.7.4 The length of Chinese abstract should not exceed 200-300 characters; abstract in foreign languages should not exceed 250 notional words. The limit could be slightly bent if it is really necessary.
5.7.5 Except for where it is unavoidable, abstract should not contain graphs, charts, chemical structural formula, signs and terms that are not universally known or used.
5.7.6 The abstract of report/paper could be placed behind the name page; the abstract of academic paper is usually placed behind the title and the author, and before the full text.
5.7.7 Graduation paper for the sake of evaluation and academic paper for the sake of presentation in an academic conference can be written into variant editions of abstract, without limitations of length.
5.8 Keywords are words or terms extracted from report/paper to indicate the theme and major content of the report/paper to facilitate reference by others.
Each report/paper should select 3 to eight words as keywords and placed at the bottom left of the abstract in conspicuous font. It is advised that regular keywords as provided by Thematic Vocabulary in Chinese should be used as much as possible.
For the sake of international communication, Chinese keywords should have their English counterparts.
5.9 Table of Contents
Long report/paper should have table of contents, short ones don’t have to.
Table of contents is made up of the chapter, section, article, appendix, references and pagination of report/paper, and is placed in an independent page after the preface.
If the entire report/paper contains volumes, each volume should have the table of contents to the entire report/paper.
5.10 List of illustrations and tables attached: If there are many graphs or tables in report/paper, they could be listed and placed after the table of contents. The list of tables should be numbered, bear a title and be paginated. The list of graphs should also be numbered, bear a title and be paginated.
5.11 Annotative table of signs, symbols, abbreviation, initials, unit of measurement, nouns, and terms: Annotations or explanations of signs, symbols, abbreviation, initials, units of measurement, nouns, terms should be listed and placed after the list of illustrations and tables.
6. Main part
6.1 Format
The writing format of the Main part is up to the author, but usually would start from introduction (or foreword) and end with conclusion or discussion.
The Main part must start from an independent page on the right. Each chapter (or section) should begin with an independent page. If report/paper is printed into books and other publications, then it should follow stipulations regarding the format of a book.
Each section or entry of the entire report/paper should be consistent and systematic in terms of format and layout.
6.2 Sequence number
6.2.1 If report/paper is divided into two or more volumes (or more than two books, or two sections) and is under the same general title, each volume or books should have a sequence number, which could be put as: Volume I, Book II; Part I, Section II, etc. Report/paper written in foreign languages should number their volumes or sections in Roman numbers.
6.2.2 The graphs, tables, notes, references, formulas, equations etc. in report/paper should all be numbered in Arabian numerical sequence. The sequence number can be coded according to the order of appearance in the entire report/paper, and long report/paper can be ordered according to chapters. The form of numbering should be easy to differentiate, and can be marked as graph 1, graph 2.1; table 1, table 3.2; annotation 1); literature [4]; equation (5), equation (3.5), etc.
6.2.3 Arabic numerals should used to paginate report/paper. The pagination starts from the first written, typing or printing page, and each page is independent of other pages. Front cover, front inside cover, back inside cover and back cover are not paginated. The name page, the preface, the table of contents and other preposed parts can be paginated independently. Pagination must be at the same place of every page for the convenience of identification.
Blank pages should be avoided, and, they should also be paginated as independent pages, if any.
If one general title has more than two books, the pagination should be continual. If each book has a sub-title, independent pagination is acceptable.
6.2.4 The appendix of report/paper should be numbered according to its sequence with capitalized standard A, B, C,…… e.g. Appendix A.
Graphs, tables, equations, references etc. should be numbered independently and be separated from the text, using Arabic numerals, though with appendix sequence number preceding the numerical order, e.g. Graph A1; Table B2; equation (B3); References (A5), etc.
6.3 Introduction (or Foreword)
Introduction (or foreword) briefly states the purpose, scope, relevant fields, previous work, blankness of knowledge, theoretical foundation and analysis, research design, research method, experiment design, results expected, significance, etc. of the research work. It should be kept brief and precise, yet it should not be a copy of the abstract, or an annotation of the abstract. Knowledge that is already in ordinary textbooks do not require detailed explanation in the introduction.
Papers that are relatively short can use very concise paragraphs as introduction.
Dissertation should mirror the fact that the author has already had a solid foundation in fundamental theories and systematic special knowledge, is equipped with broad and scientific horizon, conducted substantial discussions of the research plan. Therefore, comprehensive comment and criticism regarding literature review and previous works, plus theoretical analysis, can be put into independent chapters and narrated in sufficient length.
6.4 Text
The text of report/paper is its soul, and it includes: research object, method of experiment and observation, equipments and facilities, materials, results of experiment and observation, algorithm, principle of programming, data materials, graphs and/or tables processed, arguments arrived at and conclusion reached, etc.
Due to the fact that research works involve sharply distinctive subjects, selected topics, researching methods, working procedures, expressional ways of results, etc., the content of the text cannot be stipulated universally. However, it must be realistic, objective, accurate, sound, logic, clearly presented, concise and readable.
Graphs include graphs of curves, structures, schematic design, illustrations, box graphs, procedure graph, graph of record, graph of layout, map, photographs, plates, etc.
Graphs should be “self-evident”, viz. reading only the graph, the graph title and the graphic example, without the reading of the text, can make the reader understand.
Graphs should be numbered (see 6.2.2)
Each graph should have a brief and accurate title, which is placed beneath the graph along with the number of the graph. Signs, marks, codes and experimental conditions of the graph should be termed most precisely and placed horizontally beneath the graph as an illustration.
The horizontal and vertical coordinates of curve graph must be marked with “quantity, standard symbols, and unit”. The three can be left out only when unnecessary (e.g. no quantity involved). The symbol and abbreviation for quantity in the coordinates must be consistent with those in the text.
Photographs are required to have sharp pixels in their major parts for the convenience of plate making. For example, duplicates that are zoomed in or out must be clear, with moderate contrast. There also should be markers on photographs to identify the object in terms of its size.
6.4.2 Table
The arrangement of tables, generally speaking, should, in terms of content and items tested, go from left to right; data should be arranged vertically in sequence. Tables must be self-evident.
Tables should be numbered (see 6.2.2)
Each table should have a concise and precise title, placed along with the number of the table on the table. Symbols, signs, codes and matters that require explanation in a table should be worded in the most concise manner and placed horizontally at the bottom of the table as a note; also it could be noted beneath the table.
The arrangement of the number of notes is stated in 6.2.2. The number of notes in a table should use small Arabic numerals and be placed in round brackets at the upper right corner of the noted object, for example, xxx1), asters should not be used to avoid confusion with the symbol of conjugation and material transfer in mathematics.
Each column of a table should bear the mark of “quantity or test items, standard symbols and unit”. They can be left out only when it is unnecessary to mark. The abbreviation and symbols in a table must be consistent with those in the text.
Numbers in the same column of a table must be aligned vertically. Words like “ditto”, “same as left”, “, ,” or similar words are inappropriate in a table; all of them should be specific numbers or words. “Blank” in a table symbolizes untested or void, “-” or “…” (“-” may represent negative reaction) represents unidentified, “0” means that the test result is zero.
If data have been put into curve graph, a table of data is no longer necessary.
6.4.3 Mathematical, physical and chemical equations
The formula, equations and expressions, etc. in the text should be numbered (see 6.2.2), the number is placed at the line in which they are placed (when the line is to be continued, the number should be placed at the last line) at the most right of the line.
Relatively longer expressions should be horizontally and independently placed in the middle part of the paper. If the line has to be continued, the line can be broken only at places where +, - , ×,÷,<,> are placed. The upper and the lower expression should be aligned at the “=” place.
Decimal point is indicated with “.”. Integer that is greater than 999 and decimal that has more than three digits shall use the interval symbol of Arabic numerals to separate; kilobit mark should not be used. Pure decimals should have 0 before the decimal point.
For example, it should be 94 652.023 675;0.314325
Instead of 94,652. 023 675;0.314325
Various symbols should be distinguished, like Latin, Greek, Russian, German cursive style and curlicue; Roman numbers and Arabic numerals; the italics of words, black or white, lower or upper cases, superscript and subscript (esp. the multilayered, like “Three Step”), upper and lower deviation, etc.
Example: I, l,l,i;C,c; K,k,κ;0, o,(°);S,s,5;Z,z,2;B;β;W,w,ω。
6.4.4 Unit of Measurement
Report/paper must use Stipulated Unit of Measurement of PRC as issued by the State Council on 27th February 1984 and follow Ways of Using Unit of Measurement Stipulated by PRC. Using various quantities, units and symbols must abide by the state criteria as listed in Appendix B. The writing of unit names and symbols should universally adopt internationally used symbols.
6.4.5 Symbols and Abbreviations
Symbols and abbreviations must follow the state standards (see Appendix B). Where there is no standard, stipulations issued by the authoritative institutions or academic organizations within the subject or the field; or vocabulary of various subjects compiled by China National Committee for Terms in Sciences and Technologies. If some symbols, marks, abbreviations and initials that are not universally known or used and are not easy to be understood by readers from the same filed, or created by the author himself, must be used, they should be explained and clearly defined upon first appearance.
6.5 Conclusion
The conclusion of report/paper is final and conclusive, not a simple repetition of summaries from various sections of the text. The conclusion should be accurate, complete, clear and concise.
If expected conclusion cannot be reached, then necessary discussions could be used in the place of a conclusion.
Suggestions, research designs, advice regarding the improvement of equipments, unsolved problems, etc. can be proposed in the conclusion or the discussion.
6.6 Acknowledgement
Acknowledgement is placed after the text and is usually directed at:
National science foundation, scholarship fund that sponsors research work, contracted unit, sponsoring or supporting enterprises, organization or individuals;
Organizations or individuals that assisted or facilitated the research;
People who offered advice and help;
Owners of materials, pictures, literature, research ideas or designs who offered the right to quote or to cite.
Other organizations or individuals that acknowledgement is due.
6.7 References
Execute GB7714-87 Rules for the Writing of References.
7 Appendix
Appendix is supplementary to report/paper, not indispensable.
7.1 The following items can be attached to report/paper as appendix, or compiled into an independent book.
a. that which is supplementary to the entirety of the report/paper yet detrimental to the logic and order of the text, which contains more detailed information than the text, or deeper narration of research method and technique, or advised literature for further reading, or complementary information for the understanding of the text;
b. that which cannot be taken into the text due to its extra size or due to it is based on a replica;
c. that which are too rare to be available for the text;
d. that which are not necessary for ordinary readers yet of referential values to the professional within the field;
e. that which are important, like original data, mathematical deduction, programs, box graphs, structures, illustrations, statistics, print copies from computer, etc.
7.2 Appendix should be paginated with the text. The arrangement various numbers of each appendix is stated in 4.2 and 6.2.4.
7.3 Each appendix occupies an independent leaf. If the report/paper is in volumes or books, the appendix to respective books or volumes should be placed after the text of the books or volumes.
8. Conclusion part (if necessary)
In order to store report/paper in computer as quickly as possible, relevant input data can be supplied.
Classified index, author index, or keyword index could be made.
Back inside cover and back cover (including the copyright page)
Appendix A
Example of cover
Item for references
Appendix B
Relevant Standards
Supplementary items
B.1 GB 1434-78 Symbols of physical quantity
B.2 GB 3100-82 International system of units and its application
B.3 GB 3101-82 General principles regarding quantity, unit and symbols
B.4 GB3102.1-82 Quantity and unit of time and space
B.5 GB 3102.2-82 Quantity an unit of period and relevant phenomena
B.6 GB 3102.3-82 Quantity and unit of mechanics
B.7 GB 3102.4-82 Quantity and unit of thermology
B.8 GB 3102.5-82 Quantity and unit of electricity and magnetics
B.9 GB 3102.6-82 Quantity and unit of electromagnetic radiation
B.10 GB 3102.7-82 Quantity and unit of accoustics
B.11 GB 3102.8-82 Quantity and unit of physical chemistry and molecular physics
B.12 GB 3102.9-82 Quantity and unit of atomic physics and nuclear physics
B.13 GB 3102.10-82 Quantity and unit of nuclear and ionizing radiation
B.14 GB 3102.11-82 Mathematical symbols used in physical science and technology
B.15 GB 3102.12-82 dimensionless group
B.16 GB 3102.13-82 Quantity and unit of in solid-state physics
Additional information:
This criterion is proposed by national standardization committee of literature work
This criterion is drafted by the seventh branch of the national standardization committee of literature work
Drafter of this criterion is Tan Bingyi.

Appendix 2
National Standards of PRC
UDC 025.32
Descriptive rules for bibliographic references GB7714-87

1. Introduction
1.1 This criterion stipulates the documentation method and annotation method of references in various publications regarding the items of documentation, order of documentation, and symbols used in documentation.
1.2 This criterion is a set of rules for references documentation that serves only the documentation of references by authors and compilers, not librarians, literature cataloguer or index editor.
2. Nouns and terms
2.1 References after the text: relevant books and materials cited for the documentation and editing of works.
2.2 Identification title: unique name for certain sequential publication recognized by ISDS.
3. Documentation items and documentation format
This criterion stipulates the documentation format of the references of monograph, sequential publications, patent literature, literature from monograph and literature from sequential publications. In the five types of documentation format, any documentation item that is marked with “optional” is the optional item from the references; other documentation items are major items of the references. Items could be chosen or neglected according to stipulations in the sixth chapter of this criterion or according to individual characteristics of report/paper.
3.1 Monograph
3.1.1 Documentation item
a. Chief contributor
b. Title of the book
c. References type identification (as a choice)
d. other contributor (as a choice)
e. version
f. publishing items (publishing location, publisher, publishing year)
g. quantity of literature (as a choice)
h. Series area (as a choice)
i. Annotation items (as a choice)
j. Numbering of literature standards (as a choice)
3.1.1 Documentation format
Major contributor. Title of the book [reference type identification]. Other contributor. Version. Publishing location: publisher, year of publication, quantity of literature. Series area, annotation items, numbering of literature standards.
For example: 1 Liu Shaoqi. On the Cultivation of Party Members. Revised 2nd edition. Beijing: People’s Press, 1962. p76
2 Morton L T, ed. Use of medical literature. 2nd ed. London: Butterworths, 1977.462P. Information sources for research and development. ISBN 0-408-70916-2
3.2 Sequential publications
3.2.1 Documentation items
a. title
b. chief contributor
c. version
d. Volume, issue, year, month or other marks [year, month, volume (issue) ~month, year, volume (issue), ] (as a choice)
e. publishing item (publishing location: publisher, publishing year)
f. series area (as a choice)
g. annotation items (as a choice)
h. numbering of literature standards (as a choice)
3.2.2 Documentation format
Title. Chief contributor, version. Year. Month, volume (issue)~year. Month, volume (issue). Publishing location: publisher, publishing year, series area, annotation item, numbering of literature
e.g. 1 Geology Review. China Geology Society. 1936. 1 (1)~. Beijing: Geo Press, 1936~.
2 Communications equipment manufacturers. Manufacturing and Primary Industries Division, Statistics Canada. Preliminary ed. 1970~. Ottawa:Statistics Canada, 1970~. Annual census of manufacturers. Text in English and French. ISSN 0700~0758
3.3 Patent literature
3.3.1 Documentation items
a. patent applicant
b. title of patent
c. other contributor (as a choice)
d. annotation item (as a choice)
e. literature marker
f. nationality of patent
g. literature type of patent
h. patent number
i. publishing date
3.3.2 Documentation format
Patent applicant. Patent title. Other contributor. Annotation item. Nationality of patent, type of patent literature, patent number. Date of publication
eg:Carl Zeiss Jena, VBD.Anordnung zur lichtele-creischen Erfassung der Mitte cines Lichtfeldes. Erfinder: W Feist, C Wahnert, E Feistauer. Int. C1: G 02 B27/14. Schweiz, patentschrift, 608 626. 1979. 1.15
3.4 Literature separated from monograph
3.4.1 Documentation item
a. contributor of separation
b. title of separation
c. other contributor of separation
d. responsibility of the original literature
e. title of the original literature
f. edition
g. publishing items (publishing location: publisher, publishing year)
h. place in the original literature
3.4.2 Documentation format
Contributor of separation. Title of separation. Other contributor of separation. See: contributor of the original literature. Title of original literature, edition. Publishing location: publisher, publishing year. Position in the original literature.
eg:Weinstein L, Swartz M N. Pathogenic properties of invading nicroorganisma. In: Sodeman W A, Jr., Sodeman W A, ed. Pathologic physiology: mechanisms of disease. Philadephia: Saunder, 1974. 457~472
3.5 Literature separated from sequential publications
3.5.1 Documentation items
a. Contributor of separation
b. Title separated
c. Other contributors of separation (as a choice)
d. Name of the original literature
e. Edition
f. Position in the original literature
3.5.2 Documentation format
Contributor of separation. Title separated. Other contributor of separation. Name of the original literature, edition. Position in the original literature
e.g.: 1 Li Siguang. Crustal Sturcture and Crustal Movement. China Science, 1973 (4): 400~429
2 Mastri A R. Neuropathy of diabetic neurogenic bladder.Ann Intern Med, 1980, 92(2.2):316~318
4. Source of documentation
The source of documentation after the references is literature documented. Monograph and sequential publications can be documented following the order of name page, cover, title of the journal. Micro re-productions, audio productions and other non-book materials can be documented according to the name frame, title, tag on the container, appendix.
5. General Principles of Documentation
5.1 Words used for documentation
5.1.1 As far as principles are concerned, references must be documented with words from literature.
5.1.2 When documenting numbers, the original form of numbers in literature must be retained, but Arabic numerals should be used to indicate edition time, issue number, book number, number of page, publishing years, etc. Edition is indicated with the abbreviation of ordinal numbers.
5.2 Abbreviation
Author, compiler and publisher named with a name of a person should have all of their surnames documented, though the name could be in abbreviation (see 6.1.1). If initials cannot identify the name of the person, full name should be used.
Name of state, province, country that is preceded by the publishing location in the publishing item (see. 6.7.1.1) and names of institutions or organizations that are used as qualifiers can be documented with universally acknowledged abbreviations.
The abbreviation of the title of journals should follow the rules in the appendix of this criterion: CISO4-1984 Literature Work—International Rules for the Abbreviations of Journals.
5.3 Capitalized Letter
When documenting foreign literature, the use of capitalized letters must be compliant with the conventions of the literature in using letters.
5.4 Symbols used in documentation
References can use the following symbols:
: is used for sub-title, words that explain the title, publisher, maker, page number of literature separated from sequential publications;
, is used for consequent contributor, publishing year, making year, type of patent literature, patent nationality, volume, number of parts, original title of the literature separated from sequential publications;
; is used for title of book series, number of sub-journals, and the sequential item of “position in the original literature”;
() is used for qualifiers, number of issues, number of parts, editions of newspapers, making location, maker, making year;
[] is used for the marking of literature type and the documentation content made by the author;
In addition to above-mentioned, the rest of the documentation items should be followed by “.”, except for the last item.
6. Detailed Rules of Documentation
6.1 Chief Contributor
Chief contributor refers to individuals or organization that is responsible for the knowledge content or artistic content of literature. Chief contributor includes the author, patent applicant or patent owner, and compiler of a compendium.
6.1.1 Individual author should be documented with the surname leading the name. the name of the author can be in abbreviation, without being followed by “.”. However, European-African authors’ Chinese names can be documented just by their surnames.
e.g. 1. Li Shizhen (original title: 李时珍)
2. Einstein A (original title: Albert Einstein)
3. Weijie (original title: 伏尔特• 韦杰)
6.1.2 If the number of contributors who have similar writing method does not exceed three, they can be documented as they are. When the number is exceeded, only the first three are documented, and mark the rest with “et al” or other corresponding words.
e.g. 1 马克思,恩格斯
2. Yelland R L, Jones S c, Easton K S, et al.
6.1.3 Where the contributor of a literature is not identified or there is no contributor, “chief contributor” should be marked with “anon.” or other corresponding words. References that numbers the literature in sequential order can neglect this item and document just the title of the literature.
e.g. Anon. 1981. Coffee drinking and cancer of the pancreas.
Br Med J 283∶628
6.1.4 When institutions and organization that are responsible for the literature have names, they could be documented directly as they are, otherwise, their names should be documented according to their levels from upside down.
2 American Chemical Society.
3 S tanford University. Department of civil Engineering.
e.g. 1 Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences
6.2 Title
Title includes name of books, journals, patents, and literature separated, etc.
Titles are documented according to the way they are documented in the source. Also they could be documented according to rules in the fifth chapter when necessary.
e.g. 1 Principles of chemical dynamics and reactors.
2 Gases in sea ice 1975~1979.
3 J Math & Phys.
6.2.1 If the source of documentation bears multiple titles, two conspicuous titles can be documented.
e.g. 1 Baichuan Record of Books, Calligraphy and Carvings in Times Ancient and Modern.
2 Road map of France. Carte routiere de la France.
6.2.2 Sub-title and explanatory words for the title could be kept or neglected, depending on the external features of the literature. When necessary, both the sub-title and the explanatory words should be documented.
e.g. Hypothesis of Crustal Movement: From Continental Drift to Tectonic Structure.
6.2.3 In references, the key-title of sequential publications can replace the title offered by the source of documentation.
e.g. Scientia (Milano)
6.3 Literature type marker (as a choice)
According to GB 3469-83 Type of Literature and Code of Literature Carrier, literature should be identified. For example, micro productions, audio productions, video productions are marked, respectively, as “M”, “A” and “V”. Printed literature does not document this item.
6.4 Other contributors (as a choice)
Other contributors refer to contributors other than the chief one. For example, compiler, translator, illustrator, patent owner, hosting institutions, etc. However, compiler of a compendium can be documented as an author among the chief contributors.
eg:2 Dryden J. The works of John Dryden. Ed. By H T Swedenberg
6.5 Edition
First edition is not documented, other editions should be. Edition is marked with the abbreviation of Arabian ordinal number, or other markers.
e.g. 1 第3版     (original title:第三版)
2 5td ed. (original title:fifth edition)
3 Rev ed. (original title:Revised edition)
4 1978 ed. (original title:1978 edition)

6.6 Volume, Issue, Year, Month or other markers (as a choice)
A complete set of sequential publications should be documented by the volume number, issue number, year, month or other identifications of its first and last volume. Sequential publications that have not been finished yet should be documented by the volume number, issue number, year, month or other identifications of its first volume.
eg: 1956,1~1963,8
1974,1(1)~
e.g. 1956,1~1963,8
1974,1(1)~
6.7 Publishing items
Publishing items are documented according publishing location, publisher and publishing year. Non-book materials also can also document publishing location, publisher, publishing year, which are placed in round brackets.
e.g. Beijing: Science Press, 1985.
New York: Academic Press, 1978
6.7.1 Publishing location
6.7.1.1 Publishing location documents the name of publisher’s city. Where namesakes or city names that are not familiar to people could be followed by the name of states, provinces and countries, etc. (see 5.2).
e.g. Cambridge(Eng)
Cambridge(Mass)
6.7.1.2 If the literature has multiple publishing locations, only the conspicuous location should be documented. Where there is no publishing location, it should be marked with “publishing location unidentified” or corresponding words.
eg: 1 London:Butterworths, 1978.
(original:Butterworths London Boston Sydney Wellington Durban Toronto 1978)
2 [s.1.]:Macmillan,1975.
3 [publishing location unidentified]: Commercial Printing House, 1982.
6.7.2 Publisher
6.7.2.1 Publisher can be documented the way source is documented, or documented according to universally acknowledged simplified form or abbreviations.
e.g. 1 IRRI(original title:International Rice Research Institute)
2 Wiley(original title:John Wiley and Sons co)
6.7.2.2 When the source documented has multiple publishers, only the conspicuous one is documented.
eg:Chicao:ALA,1978.
(original:American Library Association/Chicago Canadian Library Association/Ottawa 1978)
6.7.2.3 Where there is not a publisher, “publisher unidentified” or corresponding words must be identified.
e.g. Salt Lake City:[s.n.],1964.
6.7.3 Publishing date
6.7.3.1 Publishing year is documented by annals and in Arabic numerals. Where there are other forms of annals, the original form is placed in a “()”. The publishing date of newspapers and patent documents must be documented in detail, and the form is date, month and year.
e.g.: 1705年(康熙四十四年)
20-04-1985
6.7.3.2 Publications of multiple volumes (books) that are published over many years should be documented by their starting and finishing years. Those that are not finished yet should document the publishing year of the first volume, which is followed by “~”
e.g. 1973~75
1985~
6.7.3.3 When the publishing year cannot be ascertained, copyright year, printing year or estimated year could be used, with copyright year as the first choice.
e.g. 1978
printed in 1982
6.8 Quantity of literature
6.8.1 Monograph for printing
Literature quantity of monograph for printing is indicated with number of page, number of leaf, number of volumes (books).
e.g.: 620页
546P
5v
6.8.2 Non-book materials
Literature quantity of non-book materials is documented according to the number of literature carriers.
e.g. 1 three boxes
2 12 microfiches
6.9 Series area (as a choice)
Series area is documented according to the content carried by the source of documentation. Series area includes the name, number/issue of book series or journal series, etc.
2 Interscience tracts on physics and astronomy;no.23
e.g. 1 Techniques Series for the Learning of Constructors;2
2 Interscience tracts on physics and astronomy;no.23
6.10 Annotations (as a choice)
The following supplementary materials could be explained in the annotations.
6.10.1 Access to rare literature.
e.g. Available from NTIS:AD683428
6.10.2 Reprint, duplicate, photocopy, etc. require an explanation of relationship with the original.
e.g. Reprint of original published Boston:Estes and Lauriat, 1902.
6.10.3 Subject of acquiring or using literature
e.g. Government use only
6.10.4 Status of the pre-publishing of relevant literature.
eg: 1 Forthcoming
2 Application No 26032/71 filed 19 Apr 1971, Complete specification published 24 Apr 1974
6.10.5 Classification and classification code
e.g. Dewey:001. 64′25
Int C1:G02 B 27/14
6.10.6 Others that are deemed as very important and require annotations.
e.g. Limited ed. 100 copies
6.11 Standard code of literature
ISBN, ISSN and other standard code of literature are documented with reference to relevant standards.
e.g. ISBN 0-552-6787-3
ISSN 0340-0352
6.12 Literature separated
Literature separated is documented according to the rules in 3.4 of this criterion. The relationship between literature separated from monograph and the original literature is marked with the word “see”, or other corresponding words
eg:1 Duclos R, Doukhan N, Escaig b, High temperature creep behaviour of nearly stoichiometric alumina spinel. J Mat Sci 1978, 3: 1740~1748
2 Eissen H N. Immunology: an introduction to molecular and cellular principles of the immune response. 5th ed. New York: Harper and Row, 1974.406
3 Cowan J C. Sound recording. In: Mason D. A primer of non-book materials in libraries. Rev ed. London: Association of Libraries Librarians, 1978, 94~110
6.12.1 Literature separated from sequential publications should indicate the chronological number, volume, issue, number of part, number of page at “position in the original document”.
e.g. 1980,  92  (2,2):   316~318
  ↑   ↑  ↑ ↑     ↑
  year     volume issue number of part   number of page
1985 06 15
  ↑   ↑  ↑ ↑
Year, month, date, edition of newspaper
6.12.2 Articles that are serial in the same sequential publication do not have to have its sequent part documented independently. The chronological number, volume, issue, number of part and number of page of the sequent part can be directly marked behind the original references.
e.g. 1981,  1: 37~44;  1981, 2: 47~52
↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑
Year, volume, number of page, year, volume, number of page

7 Table of references
Table of references could be organized in sequential order, or in “author-publishing year” order.
7.1 Sequential coding sysem
When the table of references is organized according to the sequential coding system, each literature in the references must be listed according to the order of their appearance in the text (see Appendix B.1)
e.g. 1 Compiled by Shanghai First Hospital. Medical Pharmacology. Beijing: People’s Health Press, 1977.24
2 Garattini S. Advance in pharmacology and chemotherapy v. 15. New York:Academic Press, 1978. 350
3 Adrian R H. Reviews of physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology v. 84. s.l.:Springer, 1978. 226
7.2 “Author-publishing year” system
When the table of references is organized with “author-publishing year” system, each literature in the table should be gathered according to the language they were written first.
They could be divided into five parts: Chinese, Japanese, Spanish, Russian, other languagnes, then they will be arranged according to the names of authors and publishing years. Chinese literature can use strokes and order of strokes (“一”、“∣”、“ ノ”、“丶”、“乛”), or listed according to the order of Chinese pinyin alphabet (see Appendix B.2)
eg:Boulton G S. 1978. Boulder shapes and grain-size distributions of debris as indicators of transpor paths through a glacier and till genesis. Sedimentology, 25: 773~799
Boulton G S. 1982. Processes and patterns of glacia erosion. In: coates D R, ed. Glacial geomorpholog, London: Allen & Unwin. 41~47
Crowell J C, Frakes L A. 1971. Late Paleozoic glaciation: part IV Australia, Bull Geol Soc Am, 82: 2515~2540.
Dreimanis A, Reavely G H. 1953. Differentiation of the lower and upper till along the North shore of Lake Erie. J Sedim Petrol, 23: 238~259.
8 Marking method of references
The marking method of literature cited in the text could adopt sequential coding system, or “author-publishing year” system (see Appendix B).
8.1 Sequential coding system
8.1.1 Sequential coding system identifies the appearance of literature cited in the text in a sequential manner, and the sequential number is placed in square brackets.
……
e.g. …..H. Cros, a west German scholar, studied the control of ………[235]; after this, he described….and proposed the idea that….[236].
…….
8.1.2 When quoting multiple literature, only the sequential numbers of all quoted literature should be listed in the square brackets, punctuated with “,”; if the sequential number is continuous, only the starting and the ending ones need to be marked.
e.g. Pei Wei proposed that…[570,83]
Morad’s research of…[255~256].
8.2 “Author-publishing year” system
8.2.1 When using “author-publishing year” system to document literature quoted in the text, the documented content includes the surname of the author and the publishing year. Where the surname of the author fails to identify the person, full name can be sued. For example, Chinese authors, Korean authors and Japanese authors that use Chinese characters for names. Literature written collectively can be documented by the name of the institution or organization.
eg:The notion of an invisible college has been explored in the scitnces (Crand 1972). Its absence among historians is notes by Stieg (1981). It may be, as Burchard (1965) points out…….
When the documented content of each literature appears in this form, the publishing year of the references should follow immediately the documentation of authors. Under such circumstances, publishing year in the publishing item could be left out.
eg:……
Crane D. 1972. Invisible college. Chicago: Univ. Of Chicago Press.
Stieg M F. 1981. The information meeds of historians. Coll. and Res.
Libraries, 42(6):549~560
8.2.2 When quoting literature of multiple authors, only the surname of the first author needs to be documented, the rest are marked with “et al”, or other corresponding words.
8.2.3 When quoting multiple literature by one author in the same year, the publishing year should be distinguished with lowercase letters (a, b, c,….) behind the publishing year.
eg: Kennedy W J,Garrison R E. 1975a. Morphology and genesis of nodular chalks and hardgrounds in the Upper Cretaceous of Southern England. Sedimentology, 22:311~386
Kennedy W J, Garrison R E. 1975b. Morphology and genesis of nodular phosphates In the Cenomanian of south-east England. Lethaia, 8:339~360.


 

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